He was an early leader of the Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Ageto which Paul was also affiliated. He died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD. Catholics and Eastern Orthodoxas well as some Anglicans and Lutheransteach that James, along with others named in the New Testament as " brothers " [note 1] of Jesuswere not the biological children of Mary, but were possibly cousins of Jesus  or half-brothers from a previous marriage of Joseph as related in the Gospel of James.
Roman tradition holds that this James is to be identified with James, son of Alphaeusand James the Less. Eusebius records that Clement of Alexandria related, "This James, whom the people of Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James called the Just because of his outstanding virtue, was the first, as the record tells us, to be elected to the episcopal throne of the Jerusalem church. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St Jamesuses this epithet. Paul was affiliated with this community, and took his central kerygma, as described in 1 Corinthians 15from this community.
According to Eusebiusthe Jerusalem church escaped to Pella during the siege of Jerusalem by the future Emperor Titus in 70 and afterwards returned, having a further series of Jewish bishops until the Bar Kokhba revolt in Following the second destruction of Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the city as Aelia Capitolinasubsequent bishops were Greeks.
James the Just was "from an early date, with Petera leader of the Church at Jerusalem and from the time when Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa 's attempt to kill him, James appears as the principal authority who presided at the Council of Jerusalem.
The Pauline epistles and the later chapters of the Acts of the Apostles portray James as an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem.
When Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and it is James who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself at Herod's Temple to prove his faith and deny rumors of teaching rebellion against the Torah Acts ff.
Paul describes James as being one of the persons to whom the risen Christ showed himself, [note 4] and in GalatiansPaul lists James with Cephas better known as Peter and John the Apostle as the three "pillars" of the Church. Paul describes these Pillars as the ones who will minister to the "circumcised" in general Jews and Jewish Proselytes in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the "uncircumcised" in general Gentiles [note 5] after a debate in response to concerns of the Christians of Antioch.
The Antioch community was concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, Allegro; Adagio; Allegro; Menuetto - Bach*, Paul Sacher, Basle Chamber Orchestra* - Six Brandenburg sent Paul and Barnabas to confer with the Jerusalem church.
James played a prominent role in the formulation of the council's decision. This became the ruling of the Council, agreed upon by all the apostles and elders and sent to the other churches by letter. Paul, although not one of the original Twelve Apostles. Modern historians of the early Christian churches tend to place James in the tradition of Jewish Christianity ; whereas Paul emphasized faith over observance of Mosaic LawJames is thought to have espoused the opposite position.
According to SchaffJames was the local head of the oldest church and the leader of the most conservative portion of Jewish Christianity. Dunn has proposed that Peter was the "bridge-man" i. Apart from a handful of references in the synoptic Gospelsthe main sources for the life of James the Just are the Pauline epistlesthe Acts of the Apostlesand Eusebius and Jeromewho also quote the early Christian chronicler Hegesippus and Epiphanius.
The Synoptics mention his name, but no further information. This hypothesis if true considerably expands our view on the life of this man.
In the extant lists of Pseudo-Hippolytus of Rome Dorotheus of Tyrethe Chronicon Paschaleand Dimitry of Rostovhe is the first of the Seventy Apostles though some sources, such as the Catholic Encyclopedia state that "these lists are unfortunately worthless". The New Testament mentions several people named James. The Pauline epistlesfrom about the sixth decade of the 1st centuryhave two passages mentioning a James.
The Ich Mocht Gern Dein Herz Klopfen Horn - Kapelle Toni Witt - Oktoberfest Live of the Apostleswritten sometime between 60 and AD,  also describes the period Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.
It has three mentions of a James. The Sledge Hammer Tolerance - Seven Minutes Of Nausea - Our Culture Is Boringwith disputed datings ranging from about 50 to as late as AD, describe the period of Jesus' ministry, around AD.
It mentions at least two different people named James. The author of the Epistle of Jude notes that he is a brother of James in that epistle's opening paragraph.
Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas and remained with him fifteen days. But I saw none of the other Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James except James the Lord's brother. In what I am writing to you, before God, I do not lie! Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia.
Then after fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along with me. Yet because of false brothers secretly brought in—who slipped in to spy out our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, so that they might bring us into slavery—to them we did not yield in submission even for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might be preserved for you.
And from those who seemed to be influential Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality —those, I say, who seemed influential added nothing to me. On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel to the circumcised for he who worked through Peter for his apostolic ministry to the circumcised worked also through me for mine Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James the Gentilesand when James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given to me, they gave the right hand of fellowship to Barnabas and me, that we should go Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James the Gentiles and they to the circumcised.
Only, they asked us to remember the poor, the very thing I was eager to do. A "James" is mentioned in Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians1 Corinthiansas one to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection:. In the preceding verse, the same Greek word "adelphos" brother is used, but not in a blood-relation sense:. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.
There is a James mentioned in Acts, which the Catholic Encyclopedia identifies with James, the brother of Jesus: "but he [Peter], beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, declared unto them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And he said, Go show these things unto James, and to the brethren.
And he departed, and went into another place. Acts When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem due to Herod Agrippa 's persecution, he asks that James be informed Acts James is also an authority in the early church at the Council of Jerusalem James is quoting Amos —12 :. And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.
And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle Earth Crisis - Breed The Killers David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.
Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world. Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God: But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.
Acts — After this, there is only one more mention of James in Acts, meeting with Paul shortly before Paul's arrest: "And when we were come to Jerusalem, the brethren received us gladly. And the day following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders were present.
The Synoptic Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James similarly to the Epistle to the Galatians, recognize a core group of three disciples Peter, John and James having the same names as those given by Paul. In the list of the disciples Joy Spring - Clifford Brown & Max Roach* - Joy Spring in the Gospels, two disciples whose names are James, the son of Alphaeus and James, son of Zebedee are mentioned in the list of the twelve disciples : Matthew —4.
And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every affliction. The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peterand Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedeeand John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew ; Thomasand Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeusand Thaddaeus ; Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariotwho betrayed him.
And they were offended at him. Fragment X of Papias writing in the second century refers to "James the bishop and apostle". Hegesippus 2nd centuryin the fifth book of his Commentaries, mentions that James was made a bishop of Jerusalem but he does not mention by whom: "After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem.
Hegesippus c. James, the Lord's brother, succeeds to the government of the Church, in conjunction with the apostles. He has been universally called the Just, from the days of the Lord down to the present time. For many bore the name of James; but this one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank no wine or other intoxicating liquor, nor did he eat flesh; no razor came upon his head; he did not anoint himself with oil, nor make use of the bath.
He alone was permitted to enter the holy place: for he did not wear any woollen garment, but fine linen only. He alone, I say, was wont to go into the temple: and he used to be found kneeling on his knees, begging forgiveness for the people-so that the skin of his knees became horny like that of a camel's, by reason of his constantly bending the knee in adoration to God, and begging forgiveness for the people.
Clement of Alexandria late 2nd century wrote in the sixth book of his Hypotyposes that James the Just was chosen as a bishop of Jerusalem by PeterJames the Greater and John :.
Epiphanius 4th centurybishop of Salamis, wrote in his work The Panarion AD that "James, the brother of the Lord died in virginity at the age of ninety-six". But other of the Apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. Some apocryphal gospels testify to the reverence Jewish followers of Jesus had for James.
The Gospel of the Hebrews Joy Spring - Clifford Brown & Max Roach* - Joy Spring the account of Paul in 1 Corinthians regarding the risen Jesus' appearance to James. The non-canonical Gospel Spootnik - Brother James - Brother James Thomas confirms that Jesusafter his resurrection, names James as a leader of his disciples:.
The disciples said to Jesus, 'We know that you will depart from us. Who will be our leader? The Gospel of Thomas [note 9] confirms the account of Paul in 1 Corinthians regarding the risen Jesus' appearance to James.
The Gospel of Thomas relates that the disciples asked Jesus, after his resurrection and before his Ascension, "We are aware that you will depart from us. The pseudepigraphical First Apocalypse of James associated with James's name mentions many details, some of which may reflect early traditions: he is said to have authority over the twelve apostles and the early church; claims that James and Jesus are not biological brothers; this work also adds, somewhat puzzlingly, that James left Jerusalem and fled to Pella, Jordan before the Roman siege of that city in Ben Witherington suggests what is meant by this was that James's bones were taken by the early Christians who had fled from Jerusalem.
The pseudepigraphical Second Apocalypse of James names James's father Theudas rather than Joseph, who is presented as the biological father of James by the mid 2nd century Protevangelium of James. The Easy Does It - The Oscar Peterson Trio - Night Train of Jamesthe sole copy of which was found in the Nag Hammadi library and which Cathys Story (Passion) - Paul Oxleys Unit - Living In The Western World have been written in Egypt in the 3rd century,  recounts a post-resurrection appearance of the risen Christ to James and Peter that James is said to have recorded in Hebrew.
In the dialogue, Peter speaks twice ; but misunderstands Jesus. Only James is addressed by nameand James is the more dominant of the two. The apocryphal Gospel of Philip seems to list a Mary as a sister of Jesus without specifying whether she is the daughter of Mary and Joseph or the daughter of Joseph by a previous marriage.
In a 4th-century letter pseudographically ascribed to the 1st century Clement of Rome James was called the "bishop of bishops, who rules Jerusalem, the Holy Church of the Hebrews, and all the Churches everywhere". James's name always appears first in lists, which suggests he was the eldest among them. Interpretation of the phrase "brother of the Lord" and similar phrases is divided between those who believe that Mary had additional children after Jesus and those CatholicsEastern Orthodoxand some Protestantssuch Seedy Saturday Rocking Gran Blues - Pam Ayres - Will Anybody Marry Me? many Anglicans and Lutherans who hold the perpetual virginity of Mary.
The only Catholic doctrine which has been defined regarding the "brothers of the Lord" is that they are not biological children of Mary;  thus, Catholics do not consider them as siblings of Jesus. Near contemporary sources [ which? Some writers, such as R. Tasker  and D. Hill, Armagedon - A Pike say the Matthew statement that Joseph "knew her not until she had brought forth her firstborn son" to mean that Joseph and Mary did have normal marital relations after Jesus' birth, and that James, JosesJudeSpootnik - Brother James - Brother James Simonwere the natural sons of Mary and Joseph and, thus, full brothers of Jesus.
Others, such as K. Brown also argues that "the immediate context favors a lack of future implication here, for Matthew is concerned only with stressing Mary's virginity before the child's birth".
Revolution Pt 2 (Slipmatt Remix) - Sharkey - Revolutions EP, My Refuge In Darkness - Ragnarok - Arising Realm, Randy Bachman & Burton Cummings - Bachman Cummings Songbook, Prá Você Não Sou Ninguém ( Look Thru Any Window) - Renato E Seus Blue Caps - Jovem Guarda Volume 2, Various - Lets Go Party