Latest Issue. Past Issues. Of course this development does not mean that the pressure on very small areas has abated—the steady disappearance of rural-health facilities is one of the biggest challenges for small and rural areas trying to remain viable.
That brings us to what will probably be the wrap-up—but who knows. Here are several more messages, starting with a long one, about further extracting Rome-and-America comparisons Various - Carbon Audio Records 2 contrasts:.
Direct governance and a formalization of borders occurred under the Roman princeps emperors. By and large, they were forced to enter Roman territory by other attackers. Their rulers were also, by and large, Romanized. They largely ruled in cooperation with local Roman elites and using Roman techniques. Odoacer positioned himself as a local Roman ruler formally subservient to the emperor in Constantinople. There 1-13. Noisettes - When You Were Young - Various - Rediscovery : A New Twist Of Your Favorite Songs guild-like groups in 1st century Rome.
The Romans appear to have developed fairly sophisticated credit systems and engaged in long-range trade. Monasteries flourished in the eastern empire, which remained quite centralized and even more heavily militarized. And so on.
Could all of this had developed in something like the direction it took if the Roman state had not succumbed, over many years, to internal and external pressures? The empire made the emperors. The US has had an emperor for decades, both through the taking of power and, more importantly and in Roman fashionthrough Congress delegating its powers to him.
A world run by Putin and Xi, yea right, that would be pretty. One fact seldom mentioned about Romanity and Greco-Roman culture is how the people that lived under it seemed to deeply hate it. A reoccurring fact of the era is how local populations defected to the barbarian tribes massively.
People joined the Goths, the Lombards, the Franks and even the Huns in their wars against their own country! Goths were very popular among the population, even when then besieged Rome, we hear about the Roman plebs joining forces with their attackers. Whole provinces that had been deeply Romanised, even colonized by Romans adopted Barbarian customs so quickly it looks like they were not conquered but liberated.
By the 6th century, Italians— Italians! There are many reasons for that; the institution of slavery, the degradation and corruption of civic institutions and services, the turbulent switch from a multireligious Empire to a monotheist and rigidly orthodox quasi-Theocracy. From reading A. Marcellinus, I was surprised to learn that in fact, Roman civilisation at that point was only working were the emperor was currently residing. As soon as the emperor moved, law, order and good administration collapsed.
This is probably why the Emperors in the 4th century were constantly on the move …. The trend among historians I read in graduate school was to push the Renaissance back earlier and earlier, but not to deny that there were losses requiring a renaissance. If the U. The Pax Romana was also real or was it? Environmental pressure—rising seas, desertification, natural disasters—is probably already driving and will continue driving government dysfunction, while government dysfunction accelerates environmental degradation.
I am not entirely despairing. No one in the s would have dreamed that crime in the U. Maybe major technological breakthrough or an ice age will save us from global warming. More from this series. The new print issue of the magazine has a short thought-experiment articleby me, on what happened after the fall of the Roman empire. The Eastern empire, based in Constantinople, had many more centuries to run. 1-13.
Noisettes - When You Were Young - Various - Rediscovery : A New Twist Of Your Favorite Songs to the readers:. In my article I quoted Philip Zelikow, of the University of Virginia, on the difference between Various - Rottenplanet EP and local officials. At the state, local, and regional level, Zelikow said, elected and career officials have no choice but to work together and actually solve problems. My grandparents came here with nothing.
I am grateful, and feel a responsibility to give back. Your essay, comparing our federal state to Rome in its age of decline, strikes a chord, and in doing so fills me with an undeniable melancholy. From a history professor of my own Boomer generation:.
I have been thinking about that [Roman] period quite a bit lately, as we see the collapse of societal norms and the failure of many central governments to actually govern. I see the present as actually more in parallel to the fall of the republic in the first century B. At that time, the empire had begun to take form, with vast amounts of wealth pouring into the center, but mainly enriching the senatorial oligarchs.
The men who had fought the wars were forced off their land, which came to be farmed on vast plantations by slaves. The new global order failed the yeomen, mainly because the rich, who controlled the government, refused to relinquish any of their wealth to help the impoverished citizens.
They engaged in wars with each other, mobilizing personal armies, and violence came to be used as a means of government with leaders of each side being killed by mobs, culminating in the death of Julius Caesar. The society had become so divided that in the end, the only way to govern was by autocratic rule: Augustus. I fear that we are near that point, and that a demagogue will arise who has more shrewdness than our current demagogue-wannabe.
Trump has blazed the pathway that others can well follow. Think if Huey Long had been successful in the s. Populism can cut both ways; call them national populism and social populism …. We are seeing the breakdown of liberal democracy across the world, as happened in the s. It was finally restored after a decade of slaughter. It may not be restored again. At the least, something new has to take form, and that will not come from our generation. Mainly, they wanted to share in the wealthy and stable Roman society, get a bit of land for their people, and be secure from tribes like the Huns on the other side of the border.
They knew Rome very well; many of their leaders had been leaders in the Roman armies, and many were Roman citizens. The Vandals were not really that vandalous …. In the same way, people are now migrating en masse into Europe and the U. Climate change plays a significant role in driving people out of their homelands, and that will only become worse over time. Another factor, of course, is Western as well as internecine wars think Iraq and Syriaand Western support of brutal governments Central America.
But the influx of a mass of outsiders into the Roman empire especially the western part did ultimately lead to the breakdown of the wealth and stability they had come for. There were many reasons for this, including intertribal battling among the newcomers and the disappearance of the Roman legions as a controlling force, but there was a continuing social disintegration and insecurity.
The stable Roman civitas crumbled, quickly in some places Britain and more slowly in others Gaul. Mass immigration creates nationalist anger, which is fuel for nationalist demagogues. As the Roman society disintegrated, government did become ever more localized. That worked for a while in some places like Francebut in time trade shrank, education declined, government services passed away, and instability increased. One could imagine some parts of the U. Infrastructure would fall apart, as it did in post-Roman Europe.
More people would flow across unpoliced borders, adding to the disruption and to the reactions. Maná Con La Participación Especial Rubén Blades* - Sábanas Frías would not play well in a society as well armed as the U.
Even in our own long lives, can we know what history might see as having passed Stanley Brothers And The Clinch Mountain Boys* - Stanley Brothers And The Clinch Mountain Boys our lifetimes, perhaps that we are now at the transition from the year Modern Age into what-we-do-not-know as John Lukacs has written? Life went on, as for the frog in boiling water whom you have analyzed ….
Several hundred years after the fall of Rome, new forms and new states began to take shape amid the ruins, and by the 12th century, western Europe was again thriving. But it was a long and difficult time between the fall of the empire and the rise of Europe. I would not wish that on my children and grandchildren, or on theirs. The long-term results of the failure of governance we are living through will 1-13.
Noisettes - When You Were Young - Various - Rediscovery : A New Twist Of Your Favorite Songs regrettable, though perhaps as necessary as the Dark Ages.
What seems more likely to me to occur over the next 50 years, and something that I oppose, is a 1-13. Noisettes - When You Were Young - Various - Rediscovery : A New Twist Of Your Favorite Songswith sovereign-individual stance married to the corporatization of society …. Instead of citizenship being based on contiguous borders, our lives are bounded by what membership card s we carry. I can go to an Amazon condominium after buying dinner at Whole Foods paid for by my Amazon coins via my Kindle and travel in my Amazon car ad infinitum.
And if I am a Sapphire member, better deals as I jump from location to location but stay in the Amazon or Apple or Goggle or Facebook or whatever bubble. Blade Runner marries Brave New World. Finally, on the question of if this time is different compared with other times due to change! Yes and no. I believe that in past periods, starting aroundin these early periods, the degree of change was much greater than now.
But the pace of change does seem to be much faster and disconcerting for all generations. This deserves further explanation, but who has the time to read, let alone write …?
Another academic writes in a message I am substantially boiling down :. Given what is already well known about how the U. For the past 70 years, young generations of Americans have been told that they ought to be living better than their parents. That was fine for the Boomers and for Gen Xers, but this is clearly not the case for Millennials.
So we were lied to. Big surprise.
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