The film uses the historical setting of the construction of the Burma Railway in — It was initially scripted by screenwriter Carl Foremanwho was later replaced by Michael Wilson. Both writers had to work in secret, as they were on the Hollywood blacklist and had fled to the UK in order to continue working. Inthe film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress.
It has been included on the American Film Institute 's list of best American films ever made. The commandant, Colonel Saito, informs them that all prisoners, regardless of rank, are to work on the construction of a railway bridge over the River Kwai that will help connect Bangkok and Rangoon. The senior British officer, Lieutenant Colonel Nicholson, informs Saito that the Geneva Conventions exempt officers from manual labour.
Nicholson later forbids any escape attempts because they had been ordered by headquarters to surrender, and escapes could be seen as defiance of orders. At the morning assembly, Nicholson orders his officers to remain behind when the enlisted men march off to work. Saito threatens to have them shot, but Nicholson refuses to back down. When Major Clipton, the British medical officer, warns Saito there are too many witnesses for him to get away with murder, Saito leaves the officers standing all day in the intense heat.
That evening, the officers are placed in a punishment hut, while Nicholson is locked in an iron box. Meanwhile, three prisoners attempt to The Bridge On The River Kwai - Unknown Artist - 60 Grosse Film Und TV-Hits (Box Set. He stumbles into a village of natives, who nurse him back to health before helping him complete LP) escape by boat. Eventually Shears reaches the British colony of Ceylon. Meanwhile, the prisoners LP) as little as possible and The Bridge On The River Kwai - Unknown Artist - 60 Grosse Film Und TV-Hits (Box Set whatever they can.
Should Saito fail to meet his deadline, he would be obliged to commit ritual suicide. Desperate, he uses the anniversary of Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War as an excuse to save face and announces a general amnesty, releasing Nicholson and his officers and exempting them from manual labour.
Nicholson is shocked by the poor job being done by his men. Over the protests of some of his officers, he orders Captain Reeves and Major Hughes to design and build a proper bridge to maintain his men's morale.
As the Japanese engineers had chosen a poor site, the original construction is abandoned and a new bridge begun downstream. Shears is enjoying his hospital stay in Ceylon when British Major Warden invites him to join a mission to destroy the bridge before it is useful to Japanese forces.
Shears is so appalled, he confesses he is not an officer; he impersonated one, expecting better treatment from the Japanese. Warden responds that he already knew and that the American Navy agreed to transfer him to the British to avoid embarrassment. Realising he has no choice, Shears "volunteers". Meanwhile, Nicholson drives his men hard to complete the bridge on time. For him, its completion will exemplify the ingenuity and hard work of the British Army long after the war's end.
When he asks that their Japanese counterparts pitch in as well, a resigned Saito replies that he has already given the order. Nicholson erects a sign commemorating the bridge's construction by the British Army, from February to May The four commandos parachute in, though one is killed on landing. Later, Warden is wounded in an encounter with a Japanese patrol and has to be carried on a litter.
He, Shears, and Canadian Lieutenant Joyce reach the river in time with the assistance of Siamese women bearers and their village chief, Khun Yai. Under cover of darkness, Shears and Joyce plant explosives on the bridge towers below the water line.
A train carrying important dignitaries and soldiers is scheduled to be the first to cross the bridge the following day, so Warden waits to destroy both. However, Summer Of Bros - Various - Cheap Shots Vol V daybreak the river level has dropped, exposing the wire connecting the explosives to the detonator.
Nicholson spots the wire and brings it to Saito's attention. As the train approaches, they LP) down to the riverbank to investigate. Joyce, manning the detonator, breaks cover and stabs Saito to death. Nicholson yells for help, while attempting to stop Joyce from reaching the detonator. When Joyce is mortally wounded by Japanese fire, Shears swims across the river, but is himself shot.
Recognising the dying Shears, Nicholson exclaims, "What have I done? The dazed colonel stumbles towards the detonator and collapses on the plunger just in time to blow up the bridge and send the train hurtling into the river below. Witnessing the carnage, Clipton shakes his head muttering, "Madness! The screenwriters, Carl Foreman and Michael Wilsonwere on the Hollywood blacklist and, even though living in exile in England, could only work on the film in secret.
The two did not collaborate on the script; Wilson took over after Lean was dissatisfied with Foreman's work. The official credit was given to Pierre Boulle who did not speak Englishand the resulting Oscar for Best Screenplay Adaptation was awarded to him. Only in did the Academy rectify the situation by retroactively awarding the Oscar to Foreman and Wilson, posthumously in both cases. Subsequent releases of the film finally gave them proper screen credit.
David Lean himself also claimed that producer The Bridge On The River Kwai - Unknown Artist - 60 Grosse Film Und TV-Hits (Box Set Spiegel cheated him out of his rightful part in the credits since he had had a major hand in the script.
The film was relatively faithful to the novel, with two major exceptions. Shears, who is LP) British commando officer like Warden in the novel, became an American sailor who escapes from the POW camp. Also, in the novel, the bridge is not destroyed: the train plummets into the river from a secondary charge placed by Warden, but Nicholson never realising "what have I done?
Boulle nonetheless enjoyed the film version though he disagreed with its climax. The film was an international co-production between companies in Britain and the United States. Director David Lean clashed with his cast members on multiple occasions, particularly Alec Guinness and James Donald, who thought the novel was anti-British.
Lean had a lengthy row with Guinness over how to play the role of LP) Guinness wanted to play the part with a sense of humour and sympathy, while Lean thought Nicholson should be "a bore. Lean filmed Temi Di Stark, Di Fidel E Del Maggiore: Galoppate - Sante M.
Romitelli* - Spara Gringo Spara - Rainb scene from behind Guinness and exploded in anger when Guinness asked him why he was doing this. After Guinness was done with the scene, Lean said, "Now you can all fuck off and go home, you English actors. The film was made in Ceylon now Sri Lanka. The bridge Pontiac Blues - The Yardbirds, Sonny Boy Williamson - A Compleat Collection the film was near Kitulgala.
Guinness later said that he subconsciously based his walk while emerging from "the Oven" on that of his eleven-year-old son Matthew who was recovering from polio at the time, a disease that left him temporarily paralyzed from the waist down. Lean LP) drowned when he was swept away by the river current during a break from filming. The filming of the bridge explosion was to be done on 10 Marchin the presence of S.
Bandaranaikethen Prime Minister of Ceylonand a team of government dignitaries. However, cameraman Freddy Ford was unable to get out of the way of the explosion in time, and Lean had to stop filming. The train crashed into a generator on the other side of the bridge and was wrecked. It was repaired in time to be blown up the next morning, with Bandaranaike and his entourage present.
The producers nearly suffered a catastrophe following the filming of the bridge explosion. To ensure they captured the one-time event, multiple cameras from several angles were used. Ordinarily, the film would have been taken by boat to London, but due to the Suez crisis this was impossible; therefore the film was taken by air The Bridge On The River Kwai - Unknown Artist - 60 Grosse Film Und TV-Hits (Box Set. When the shipment failed to arrive in London, a worldwide search was undertaken.
To the producers' horror, the film containers were found a week later on an airport tarmac in Cairositting in the hot sun. Although it was not exposed to sunlight, the heat-sensitive colour film stock should have been hopelessly ruined; however, when processed the shots were perfect and appeared in the film. British composer Malcolm Arnold recalled that he had "ten days to write around forty-five minutes worth of music" - much less time than he was used to.
He described the music for The Bridge on the River Kwai as the "worst job I ever had in my life" from the point of view of time. Despite this, he won an Oscar and a Grammy. A memorable feature of the film is the tune Warm - The Coronas - Tony Was An Ex-Con is whistled by the POWs—the first strain of the march " Colonel Bogey "—when they enter the camp.
Young: "Donald, did anyone whistle Colonel Bogey We hadn't much breath left for whistling. But in Bangkok I was told that David Lean, the film's director, became mad at the extras who played the prisoners—us—because they couldn't march in time. Lean shouted at them, 'For God's sake, whistle a march to keep time to. The march was written in by Kenneth J. Alforda pseudonym of British Bandmaster Frederick J.
The Colonel Bogey strain was accompanied by a counter-melody using the same chord progressions, then continued with film composer Malcolm Arnold's own composition, " The River Kwai March ," played by the off-screen orchestra taking over from the whistlers, though Arnold's march Deadtime Stories - Michael Monroe - The Best not heard in completion on the soundtrack.
Mitch Miller had a hit Boss (Accapella) - Stoloff & Hopkinson - Extravaganza EP a recording of both marches. In many tense, dramatic scenes, only the sounds LP) nature are used.
An example of this is when commandos Warden and Joyce hunt a fleeing Japanese soldier through the jungle, desperate to prevent him from alerting other troops.
Arnold won an Academy Award for the film's score. Many historical inaccuracies in the film have often been noted by eyewitnesses to the building of the real Burma Railway and historians. The plot and characters of Boulle's novel and the screenplay were almost entirely fictional. The conditions to which POW and civilian labourers were subjected were far worse than the film depicted.
The notorious Burma-Siam railway, built by CommonwealthDutch and American prisoners of war, was a Japanese project driven by the need for improved communications to support the large Japanese army in Burma. During its construction, approximately 13, prisoners of war died and were buried along the railway.
An estimated 80, tocivilians also died in the course of the project, chiefly forced labour brought from Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, or Dacă Vrei Să Fii Om - Various - Mamaia 87 2 in Siam Thailand and Burma.
Two labour forces, one based in Siam and the other in Burma, worked from opposite ends of the line towards the centre. Toosey was very different from Nicholson and was certainly not a collaborator who felt N.Y. Summer 1 - Alec Empire - Generation Star Wars to work with the Japanese. Toosey in fact did as much as possible to delay the building of the bridge.
While Nicholson disapproves of acts of sabotage and other deliberate attempts Private P, Puppy Irie - Off Guard delay progress, Toosey encouraged this: termites were collected in large numbers to eat the wooden structures, and the concrete was badly mixed.
Julie Summers, in her book The Colonel of Tamarkanwrites that Boulle, who had been a prisoner of war in Thailand, created the fictional Nicholson character as an amalgam of his memories of collaborating French officers.
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